Sunday, September 18, 2016

Community Safety Cyberbullying Rumour Spread Vigilantism Smartphones drive latest wave of cyber-bullying SMH June 30th 2012 Bullying at School Fear of Crime HyperVigilantism Histrionic Personality "teased, threatened, spread rumours about or excluded"

Cyberbullying Law
 "Under Australian Commonwealth law it is an offence to “use a carriage service to menace, harass or cause offence, or for the purposes of a threat”. It is also an offence to “knowingly or recklessly use a telecommunications service in such a way as would be regarded by reasonable persons being, in all the circumstances, offensive”
Maximum Penalty 3 years Imprisonment

"A #victoriapolice spokesman said a person found guilty of revenge-porn type posts faced up to
10 years in jail."

Sydney Morning Herald 

April 19th 2016

"teased, threatened, spread rumours about or excluded"

girls/ women who bully Cyberbullying has become the latest negative tool in the bully’s toolbox. Here, the bully can attack, create cliques, gossip, spread rumors, and character-assassinate their target, anonymously. As a result of the anonymity of the Internet, this relational aggression is particularly toxic. Girls are so dependent on relationships that some have been known to go to sleep with their cell phones. So you can imagine how girls feel when they view Facebook pictures of groups they are not included in, parties they have been left out of, and relationships they don’t have... never mind being defriended. This kind of trauma can lead to jealousy, feelings of rejection, sadness, depression, and even suicide. When women bully, and they do, it is often related to both competition and judgment. Judgment offers control and it has the capacity to lead to cruelty. However, this need for control can be a compensation in women for both self-scrutiny and the fear of being seen. The insecurity of believing that our personal flaws may become visible and therefore attacked, creates the all too familiar internal dialogue of criticism, that inner voice from early childhood that answers to our own feelings of unworthiness and low self-esteem.

What does cyberbullying look like?
·         Being sent mean or hurtful text messages from someone you know or even someone you don’t know
·         Getting nasty, threatening or hurtful messages through social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter, or through sites where people can ask / answer questions like Formspring or Internet forums
·         People sending photos and videos of you to others to try and embarrass or hurt you
·         People spreading rumours about you via emails or social networking sites or text messages
·         People trying to stop you from communicating with others
·         People stealing your passwords or getting into your accounts and changing the information there
·         People setting up fake profiles pretending to be you, or posting messages or status updates from your accounts
Australian Human Rights Commission and Reach Out 2011

Social Exclusion Social Contagion 

" A further aspect of using the peer group as a method of bullying is the opportunity for rapid transmission of emotions and behaviours through a crowd, diffusing the level of individual responsibility [184], so that each member feels less responsible for the victimisation, a process referred to as   ‘social contagion’"  

“Social exclusion has been demonstrated to be the worst form of bullying [92]. In extreme forms it has been linked to suicide [206].”  

Edith Cowan University May, 2009 

Smartphones drive latest wave of cyber-bullying


THE rise of smartphones has outpaced traditional wisdom on how parents should monitor teenagers' use of technology and created a powerful new venue for cyber-bullying, according to an Australian psychologist who has conducted the most detailed study yet of children's behaviour towards each other.
Sheryl Hemphill, from the Australian Catholic University, followed 700 Victorian school students from year 7 to year 9, asking them anonymously whether they had teased, threatened, spread rumours about or excluded other children either in person or using a computer or phone.

Spreading rumours ... smartphones are facilitating cyber-bullying, according to an Australian psychologist.
Spreading rumours ... smartphones are facilitating cyber-bullying, according to an Australian psychologist. Photo: Bloomberg

She found 15 per cent of the teenagers had been involved in cyber-bullying, fewer than the 21 per cent who confessed to having bullied others in person.
But there was little overlap between the groups, with only 7 per cent of students engaged both in face-to-face and cyber-bullying, Professor Hemphill found. She said this might be a result of ''anonymity and the perception that this form of bullying was less likely to be detected. Cyber-bullying may also rely on different forms of power'' related to technology skills rather than physical dominance.
It was also possible, she said, that teenagers might act impulsively online because they were remote from the distress caused by their behaviour. ''In cyberspace you don't have the visual cues,'' she said.
Many authorities, including the federal government's Stay Smart Online initiative recommend parents keep computers in the family room so children's internet activity is visible.
But smartphones had raised the stakes, Professor Hemphill said. ''There have been ideas about how much monitoring parents should do … but now with smartphones they really can't be there all the time.'' A survey by Google last month showed more than half of mobile phones in Australia have internet capability.
In contrast to traditional bullying, Professor Hemphill's survey, published this week in the Journal of Adolescent Health, found cyber-bullying was not linked to disrupted family background or poor school performance.
She hopes to conduct further research into characteristics of individual children or situations, including whether group dynamics affect the likelihood of bullying as online devices become more prevalent. ''What are the peer things that are going on if they're all online at the same time?'' she asks. ''We know peers are really important for adolescents and if you get a group together it could be that they may behave in ways they would never think of on their own.''
An interim report last year by the federal joint select committee on cyber-safety recommended the development of a national definition of bullying via technology and of mentoring to promote online safety.
In its response, in December, the federal government proposed defining bullying as, ''repeated verbal, physical, social or psychological behaviour that is harmful and involves the misuse of power by an individual or group towards one or more persons. Cyberbullying refers to bullying through information and communication technologies.''
But the Stride Foundation, which promotes youth wellbeing, suggested in a submission to the inquiry that the threshold should be lower for cyber-bullying. ''Because the intimidation or bullying action is delivered via the written word … the target can read and therefore be affected by the same words again and again'' even if the attack occurred only once, it said.

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