Monday, May 9, 2016

Community Safety Cyberbullying Covert bullying: A review of national and international research Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study (ACBPS) Authors Donna Cross Therese Shaw Lydia Hearn Melanie Epstein Helen Monks Leanne Lester Laura Thomas Data Analysis Australia Child Health Promotion Research Centre Edith Cowan University, May 2009 Quotes selected by Pete Dowe "The Victim of Rumour "Musta done Somethin?" How convenient for a Rumour Spreader" Pete Dowe #genderequality #victoriaagainstviolence #uniteandchange #16days #familyviolence #domesticviolence #emotionalviolence #VICforWomen #genderspecific #rcfv #malevictims #workplacebullying #bullyingatschool #fearofcrime #suicide #anxiety #depression Social Contagion A further aspect of using the peer group as a method of bullying is the opportunity for rapid transmission of emotions and behaviours through a crowd, diffusing the level of individual responsibility [184], so that each member feels less responsible for the victimisation, a process referred to as ‘social contagion’ Social exclusion has been demonstrated to be the worst form of bullying [92]. In extreme forms it has been linked to suicide [206].Edith Cowan University, May 2009




Social exclusion has been demonstrated to be the worst form of bullying [92]. In extreme forms it has been linked to suicide [206].


Social Contagion
A further aspect of using the peer group as a method of bullying
is the opportunity for rapid transmission

of emotions and behaviours through a crowd, diffusing the level of individual responsibility [184], so that

each member feels less responsible for the victimisation, a process referred to as 

‘social contagion’

Edith Cowan University, 
May 2009


The premise which enables the spreading of lies and rumours is the assumption that the victim "musta done somethin" that those who spread lies and rumours would not spread lies and rumours unless the victim "musta done somethin" How convenient for a Rumour Spreader

Pete Dowe



#bullying #covertbullying #cyberbullying #socialexclusion #rumourspread #bullyingatschool #workplacebullying

While this report studies #bullyinginschools it has parallels with bullying in other environments.
Quotes were selected by me
Pete Dowe

"Just because you're paranoid doesn't mean the FBI's not following you"
60's Vietnam War protester

Social exclusion has been demonstrated to be the worst form of bullying [92]. In extreme forms it has been linked to suicide [206].

“Prior to reviewing the key characteristics of those children who are bullied and those who bully others, an important issue that Garandeau and Cillessen [139] have highlighted is that in each school class there are rarely more than one or two children who are bullied. This has served to reinforce the notion that the person who is being bullied must have done something wrong, or possesses some negative personality traits that encourages the rest of the group to reject them, resulting in lack of empathy on the part of the group towards them and the ‘illusion of the single target’ [198].”

it has been argued that in the case of relational aggression and covert bullying, the person who is initiating the bullying is likely to feel more protected if there is only one person being bullied. This is because if several members of the class were collectively being attacked they would feel more empathy towards the person being bullied and would be more likely to support them, so it is in their best interest to target only one person [139]. Thus while there may be several potential targets in each group, typically only one is bullied, making it harder to clearly identify characteristics of the persons being bullied, since these will vary depending on the individual

…what these studies have indicated is that while boys tend to use physical bullying and aggression more than girls, they do not necessarily use covert bullying any less frequently than do girls [149]. The major difference between genders is that for girls, holding social knowledge equates to holding social power as a means of manipulating their peers, while boys tend to use ‘rational-appearing aggression’ [109] to assist them to disguise their manipulation of the situation. Rational-appearing aggression can include interrupting, criticising, unfairly judging others and questioning others’ judgement, and is a form of aggression which can be presented as being ostensibly rational and concealed as not being aggressive at all [220]. Both mechanisms have the same ultimate outcome [111]. In other words, both girls and boys rate social aggression and covert bullying as worse than physical aggression and bullying [146; 205], and studies have shown it to be strongly linked to depression [122], anxiety [149] and low self-esteem [221] in both genders.

The question of why other members of the group participate appears to be related to their need to belong and their fear of being excluded [186; 187]. For example, while many students may not agree with bullying [188; 189], most students fail to support the person being bullied [190]. Studies of adolescent cliques suggest that while clique members may not believe the rumours they are told, their main reason for going along with it is for fear of exclusion [191]. As Garandeau and Cillessen [139] suggest, bullying in this way becomes like following a trend, a ‘fashionable’ thing to do, making them look good and reinforcing their sense of belonging.

Contrary to popular belief that the role of groups is to maintain cohesion among individual members, and hence bullying might be a way of excluding those who jeopardise the group’s homogeneity, a study of 15 year old girls in Australia [192] found that even when a person who was bullied left the school, and hence no longer posed a threat, malicious rumours were spread to the new school. It has been suggested, therefore, that dysfunctional groups, with a high level of imbalance of power among members, are far more likely to use covert, manipulative forms of bullying [192]

One important issue that has not been discussed so far in this review is the effect of the significant growth in information and communication technologies (ICT) on covert bullying.

‘Cyber bullying’ has been described as a particularly damaging form of psychological covert aggression that involves “….the use of information and communication technologies to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behaviour by an individual or group, that is intended to harm others…” [99], and frequently involves “[s]ending or posting harmful material or engaging in other forms of social aggression using the Internet or other digital technologies” [261, p. 1].

Early studies indicate that Short Message Service (SMS) text messaging using mobile phones is the most common medium used for cyber bullying among adolescents in Australia [262]. Students can create personal on-line profiles (known as Xangas) where they might list classmates they do not like, or similarly they may take on anonymous, virtual personalities in Multi-User Domain (MUD) online game rooms to harass others. Alternatively, cyber bullying can take the form of enticing individuals to share secrets or photographs (emailed in confidence), that are then altered and sent to unlimited audiences once relationships sour [101]. Consequently, with the advent of new technology, covert bullying is being transformed from ‘behind the scene to behind the screen’.

Verbal aggression and bullying translates easily to SMS mobile phone text messaging, e-mailing, instant messaging, and use of chat-rooms: indeed, to anywhere in which virtual text is used to communicate. In this way, the use of ICT can enable young people to inflict social isolation, exclusion, and manipulation on a much broader scale, with a significantly higher effect–todanger ratio [263; 264].

No comments:

Post a Comment