"...indirect (or covert or relational) bullying (or social aggression)
(e.g. rumour spreading, isolation and social seclusion which is more hidden)."
and can be carried out behind the bullied person's back.
It is designed to harm someone's social reputation and/or cause humiliation.
"I think it better to use the words (bullying) "typically involving a power imbalance".
I say this because the bullying itself may have created a power imbalance where none existed before...
it is the effect on them that creates the power imbalance
in favour of those doing the bullying which did not exist before."
A further aspect of using the peer group as a method of bullying is the opportunity for rapid transmission
of emotions and behaviours through a crowd, diffusing the level of individual responsibility , so that
each member feels less responsible for the victimisation, a process referred to as
. This has the added advantage that if the aggressive act is carried out by a single peer, the person
bullied may feel that it is just that particular person who does not like him/her, whereas if the entire group
engages in the activity, the person being bullied is likely to feel that everyone hates him/her and that this
is due to his/her own personal failings .
Edith Cowan University 2009
Donald Trump's history of suggesting Obama is a Muslim
- Trump has a history of questioning Obama's commitment to his faith and country
- Questions about whether Trump intentionally encourages his supporters to believe such things resurfaced at a campaign rally Thursday