What does cyberbullying look like?
Sydney Morning Herald
Here, the bully can attack, create cliques, gossip, spread rumors, and character-assassinate their target, anonymously.
As a result of the anonymity of the Internet, this relational aggression is particularly toxic.
Girls are so dependent on relationships that some have been known to go to sleep with their cell phones. So you can imagine how girls feel when they view Facebook pictures of groups they are not included in, parties they have been left out of, and relationships they don’t have... never mind being defriended. This kind of trauma can lead to jealousy, feelings of rejection, sadness, depression, and even suicide. When women bully, and they do, it is often related to both competition and judgment. Judgment offers control and it has the capacity to lead to cruelty. However, this need for control can be a compensation in women for both self-scrutiny and the fear of being seen. The insecurity of believing that our personal flaws may become visible and therefore attacked, creates the all too familiar internal dialogue of criticism, that inner voice from early childhood that answers to our own feelings of unworthiness and low self-esteem. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-gail-gross/girls-who-bully-and-the-women-they-learn-from_b_4034100.html
Social Exclusion Social Contagion
" A further aspect of using the peer group as a method of bullying is the opportunity for rapid transmission of emotions and behaviours through a crowd, diffusing the level of individual responsibility , so that each member feels less responsible for the victimisation, a process referred to as ‘social contagion’"
“Social exclusion has been demonstrated to be the worst form of bullying . In extreme forms it has been linked to suicide .”
Edith Cowan University May, 2009
Fear of Crime.
"The reason why older people are more fearful about their safety on the streets alone at night is not entirely clear. Note that the question does not mention crime, and it could be that the prospect of being out alone on dark public streets may evoke anxiety about a greater range of mishaps (for example, falling over), especially as the emotional, physical and financial consequences could be worse for older people" (James & Graycar 2000).
"The question is also hypothetical for those who rarely go out alone after dark, which will be the case for many older people. It might also be that “street-crime” affecting older people is particularly overdramatised in the media—and many older people may form their perception of crime through this."
Therefore organisations which promote women walking at night are promoting a high-fear-of-crime group to put itself in a high-fear-of-crime situation. Fine, they have every right to do so. But in this hyper-vigilant, high-fear era, we need to be clear on where the fear is coming from. And re vigilantism, we cannot scapegoat others for our pre-existing fear.
Fear of Crime Ch. 4
A Safe and Secure Environment for Older Australians
Marianne James, Adam Graycar and Pat Mayhew
Australian Institute of Criminology Research and Public Policy Series No. 51 2003